California rains put spotlight on atmospheric rivers

Forecasts of moisture conduits could aid water managers California has no mighty rivers like the Mississippi, but rivers of a kind are flooding the state. Since the new year, more than a meter of precipitation has fallen in some places, unleashing floods, triggering landslides, and, last week, bringing the emergency spillway of the Oroville Dam, … More California rains put spotlight on atmospheric rivers

Crystal clocks

How smudged crystals offer windows into a volcano’s eruptive past. Crystals in volcanic rocks contain clocks that offer clues to the volcano’s plumbing and past behavior. The technique, called diffusion chronometry, is catching on among volcanologists. It depends on understanding how the crystals grew out of a magma soup deep underground, accreting layers that bear … More Crystal clocks